US Presidents and the Arts: A Vision for the Nation

When was the last time you heard an American president talk about the arts, particularly their importance in our society overall? Back on February 18, 1784, in a letter to a local bookseller in Alexandria, Virginia, the country’s first president George Washington wrote that “to encourage literature and the arts is a duty which every good citizen owes to his country.” Did other presidents follow his advice over the next 230 years?The answer is yes and here are 7 ways that U.S. presidents have made contributions to the artistic health of the country.FDR and the WPA. The first and only time professional artists, from painters to musicians to writers, were directly employed by the U.S. government was under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. For in 1935 during the Great Depression, FDR signed into law the WPA or Works Progress Administration which provided jobs in the areas of visual art, music, drama, and writing. As a result, thousands of works of art were produced, including large-scale murals that still decorate post offices, court houses, and schools today. Plays and concerts were also performed in front of millions of Americans and writers compiled historical guides for every state. Among the participants in the program were Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Jacob Lawrence, John Steinbeck, Studs Terkel and countless others. The WPA program for the arts ended during World War II.TEDDY ROOSEVELT AND THE NATIONAL ART MUSEUM MALL. In 2014 the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. has one of the largest complexes of art museums in the world. But in 1906, negotiations for establishing the Smithsonian’s first art museum, the Freer Gallery, had broken down. Detroit millionaire Charles Lang Freer and the regents of the SI were unable to agree on how his priceless gift of Asian and American art should be displayed. Only the intervention of then President Theodore Roosevelt renewed talks guaranteeing the establishment of the Freer Gallery of Art. Thanks to Roosevelt’s foresight, visitors can now visit not only the Freer (with its present collection of some 26,000 objects), but 5 other art museums located on or near the National Mall.JOHN F. KENNEDY: A VISION FOR THE NATION. When 43 year old John F. Kennedy invited poet Robert Frost to speak at his inauguration in January 1961, it signaled the start of a new era in the arts. He and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy used the White House as a national showcase, especially for concerts and dances as well as Mrs. Kennedy’s renovation of the building itself. The Kennedys, too, were instrumental in bringing the most famous painting in the world, the Mona Lisa, for public exhibition in both New York City and Washington, D.C. in 1963, attracting a combined total of almost 2 million visitors. Kennedy also created a Special Consultant on the Arts and encouraged congressional hearings that eventually led to the formation of the National Endowment for the Arts after his death.LYNDON JOHNSON AND THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed legislation establishing the National Endowment for the Arts, an independent federal agency dedicated to funding artistic projects and initiatives throughout the United States. Now, approaching its fifth decade, the NEA has survived threats of budget cuts and even elimination. At the present, individual artists and cultural organizations are eligible for grants; an important focus of the agency is promoting art education. In addition, the Highway Beautification Act was passed during Johnson’s term. Its major advocate was the President’s wife, Lady Bird Johnson, who had campaigned for enhancing the nation’s interstate and primary roadways.THOMAS JEFFERSON: MASTER ARCHITECT. Did you know that Thomas Jefferson submitted his own architectural plan for the U.S. Capitol building? Although it wasn’t accepted, the third U.S. president did eventually realize his artistic ambitions with his innovative designs for his home at Monticello and the campus of the University of Virgina (its building style and layout have been adopted by numerous schools and universities across the country).THE ADAMS ARTS LEGACY. Founding father and second president John Adams once predicted that he must study politics and war, so that his sons could study mathematics and philosophy, and his grandsons, in turn, might study painting, poetry, music, and architecture, and other art forms. Although his son and sixth president John Quincy Adams, followed his father’s profession, he did propose the promotion of the arts and sciences through a national university during his own administration. While two generations later Henry Adams did actually become an art historian and writer, almost fulfilling his great grandfather’s prophesy.ARTISTS-IN-CHIEF. Finally, at least four U.S. chief executives have joined the ranks of amateur artists including two popular wartime generals, Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Grant for example, studied art when he attended West Point, while Eisenhower began painting as a hobby in his fifties. Most recent presidential artists are President Jimmy Carter who often sells his work for charitable causes and President George W. Bush, known especially for his portraits of dogs.

Games People Play in Organizations

You might have noticed that people have political games in businesses. Not you of course – many other folks. Nevertheless, it’s essential to know how it is done by them and why. Little time must be devoted to the dysfunctional job of politics in businesses. It’s costly and divisive, burning up power which instead may go to the pursuit of the organization ‘s objective. It is able to also result in all sorts of distortions. The sustainment of the introduction or outmoded powers of unjustified brand new ones. Less widely appreciated, however, are the conditions under which politics serve a functional role in organizations – the positive side of politics and what it can do to help an organization.Henry Mintzberg is among the primary business gurus, particularly in the world of strategy. A set of political games were described by him. Note exactly how the majority of these are about building strength in numerous places, as well as just how more than a single game may be going on at exactly the same time along with identical individuals.The gamesInsurgency game
Revolution in the bottom part. Much beloved of Trades Unions as well as all those that believe the weight of power. Often has a transactional kid and parent basis.Counter-insurgency game
Play by the authorities while they fight against insurgents. A lot a parent and kid basis. Between them they play a number of other games within this area, such as’ Catch me in case you can’, Blame video games and also the’ Poor me’ game.Sponsorship game
Building strength through attaching yourself to all those who will help you down the road. The basic deal is the fact that the lower down people get to have the ability to call on the higher-up folks, who in turn have a loyal servant who keeps the ears of theirs to the ground so on.Alliance-building game
Building strength through peer networks. Note just how this is played horizontally through the group vs. the vertical game of Sponsorship.Empire-building game
Played especially by supervisors on their way up the business, developing the power base of theirs. Internal competition next is between total fiefdoms rather compared to individuals. This’s invaluable in case you’re actively playing a war game.Budgeting game
Budgeting usually includes a clear rules and this particular game is all about obtaining the most money you are able to, usually by asking for a lot with the data that you are going to get just a component of everything you asked for. More than every other game, this is zero sum, because when I find the money, you do not.Expertise game
This is played by individuals with expert power, exactly where the knowledge of theirs and skills are managed by them much more for their personal gain than for which of the business. For instance, they’ll just give out info or perhaps help those who could help them during the future. Thus is are played along with various other games.Lording game
This is played with the strength of one ‘s position, for instance in which a senior manager assembles the staff of his and also creates pronouncements, delivering them off to do his or perhaps her bidding (which could, of course, stop being in the passions of the company).Line vs. staff game
This’s the game between line supervisors who’re confronted with the daily working of the organization as well as the staff advisers who seek for instance to distribute best practices and frequent performing procedures. The staff usually have no direct authority, that allows the resist or even line managers to refuse.Rival camps game
When Empire building becomes an us-vs-them game, generally when there are 2 major camps, then it is able to turn into all out war. This usually happens between departments, like research and manufacturing, sales and marketing, etc. where you will find different expertise, interests and goals and it’s not hard to level the finger over the fence.Strategic candidates game
This occurs when you will find maybe designs in the offing and organizations of folks cluster around these suggestions. In a way, it’s the suggestions that are battling each other.Whistle-blowing game
This is where an insider leaks info (perhaps to the press) or perhaps when someone names the’ dead elephant’ in the midst of the table. When the emperor is informed he’s no clothes, it’s typical he fights back, so this is a risky game to play and also can certainly be performed because of morals, naivety or perhaps with distinct political intent, like to discredit a rival.Young Turks game
This is usually played as the’ thrusting younger men’ game in which testosterone guidelines and aggression is the major tool. Additionally, it appears in leadership difficulties and tries to shift strategic direction.

Give Your Garden The Best By Buying Rattan Garden Furniture

For the perfect touch of elegance to your garden, you can invest in rattan garden furniture. Rattan garden furniture today comes in some of the most exquisite and finest designs that make your conservatory look both chic and sophisticated. You can mix different types of outdoor furniture to suit your tastes because there is wide range of designs and styles in garden furniture. Amongst these, the rattan furniture type tends to combine both traditional and contemporary elements so that they can be used for doing up any room-the basic look is simple yet stylish.Wooden garden furniture tends to be a huge favorite because this sturdy and durable teak furniture resists shrinkage and warping and it has an aromatic smell. The overall look is classy, and the rich, brown color does not need regular painting-it is waterproof, insect resistant, and naturally oily. Metal garden furniture is known for being both durable and classic in appearance, making it a popular choice for outdoor furniture. You can choose from the lightweight aluminum to the classic iron-these furniture pieces are typically lightweight and fairly portable, thereby making it easier for them to be moved around suitably. The patio furniture typically consists of coffee tables, lounge chairs, sofas, and couches, which are available in many elegant designs these days. Whether it is your patio furniture or your garden furniture, you can safely choose rattan garden furniture because of its timeless appeal. It is woven into stylish designs and made from pliable material. This furniture can also be used in combination with metal and mosaic tiles for making elegant-looking chairs and tables.Why You Should Choose Rattan Furniture* Rattan is a strong wood, and its unique properties make it perfect for outdoor usage. It can also be used to make dining sets and bedroom and living room furniture pieces.* Low-cost maintenance makes rattan furniture more popular as it does not need regular moisturizing and can retain its color and shape for long periods.* It is easy to clean by simply using a damp cloth and can withstand fluctuating weather conditions, making them ideal for outdoors.* Lightweight yet durable, they are suitable for rough use.* It is cost-effective and much cheaper than wood but lasts longer.Things To Remember When Buying Rattan Garden Furniture* The bigger the stem’s diameter, the better the quality is.* The rattan needs to be smooth without hairlike strands jutting out.* You need to check the grade of the rattan before you buy it-while grade A is very smooth and colored uniformly, B is comparatively rougher, and grade C has a rough look with dents.* Check for a warranty, and buy only from reputed dealers.When you want both beautiful and affordable outdoor furniture for your garden, you can safely choose rattan garden furniture-it is very reasonable priced as compared to wooden garden furniture. Moreover, this type of furniture is weatherproof and great for houses with small spaces. The rattan furniture is available in diverse styles and shapes, and you can adorn them further by choosing matching cushions and accessories.